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Akbar Bespalov
Akbar Bespalov


Etymological Dictionary of Proto-CelticThe only etymological dictionary that embraces all of Celtic, this dictionary focuses on the Proto-Celtic and Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymology of Celtic words. A succinct list of the reflexes of each word in the main Celtic languages is provided, but there are no internal word histories. The reconstructions are explained only in a brief manner. Review: "The first etymological dictionary of Proto-Celtic to be published after a hundred years, synthesizing the work of several generations of Celtic scholars. It contains a reconstructed lexicon of Proto-Celtic with ca. 1500 entries. The principal lemmata are alphabetically arranged words reconstructed for Proto-Celtic. Each lemma contains the reflexes of the Proto-Celtic words in the individual Celtic languages, the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) roots from which they developed, as well as the cognate forms from other Indo-European languages. The focus is on the development of forms from PIE to Proto-Celtic, but histories of individual words are explained in detail, and each lemma is accompanied by an extensive bibliography. The introduction contains an overview of the phonological developments from PIE to Proto-Celtic, and the volume includes an appendix treating the probable loanwords from unknown non-IE substrates in Proto-Celtic." See Also: HOLLIS record for this resource.


BrillOnline Dictionaries. Etymological DictionariesA lexicon for the most important languages and language branches of Indo-European. Dictionaries can be cross-searched, with an advance search for each individual dictionary enabling the user to perform more complex research queries. Each entry is accompanied by grammatical info, meaning(s), etymological commentary, reconstructions, cognates and often extensive bibliographical information.

Indo-European Etymology. Michiel de Vaan (2016). Oxford Bibliographies Online in Linguistics.Covers resources on the Proto-Indo-European lexicon and recommended etymological tools for Celtic languages, among others.

Of the second, we have Tiberius, a classical Roman name deriving from the river Tiber. Tiberius was the name of a Roman emperor, and, later, four Byzantine emperors. The name shows up in Germany and Italy quite early (most likely references to these emperors), and then there is a big gap before the name was revived in Italy in the 15th and 16th C, as part of the Renaissance fashion of mining classical names. In this context we should also mention the names Jordan (m., entry not yet available) and Jordana (f.). While the etymological root of the masculine name is almost certainly not the river in the Holy Land, the popularity of the name was significant increased because of its similarity to the river name, with many Crusaders returning with Jordan water and naming their children for it.

MacBain's Etymological Dictionary MacBain, Alexander (1896) Reprints from Gairm & Hippocrene An etymologicaly dictionarty which cites cognates for Irish and Irish as well as for Welsh and other neighboring languages.

Pokorny Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, Vol. 1-2 (Indo-European etymological dictionary) Pokorny, Julius. (1951-69) A. Francke The standard listing of Indo-European roots with citations for Old Irish and other Celtic languages. Not exaclty cheap.

The etymological dictionaries available to date mention a variety of unsustainable hypotheses regarding the Indo-European origin of Ir. *ma 'to be, become' or its reflexes in individual daughter languages. Bailey (1979: 483a) attempts to

4N. Sims-Williams (pers. comm.) informs me that Sogd. ''mtk, cited in Cheung 2007: 257 as a derivative of ''m- 'to come to'

9While Jasanoff (2003: 94) hesitated to reconstruct the i-present for this particular verbal root, this was solely due to the lack of etymological comparanda at his disposal. The proposed etymology strengthens Jasanoff's overall argument for the reconstruction of i-presents in Anatolian. In his notation, Hitt. mai- / miya-hi can be reconstructed as *moh2-i- / *mh2-i-

3.Latin and Slavic. The latest etymological dictionary of the Latin language connects Lat. maturus 'ripe, full-grown' with Lat. Matuta 'the goddess of Dawn', and matutinus 'of early morning' (de Vaan 2008: 367). The lexemes that are commonly adduced as further cognates of this group include Lat. mane 'early, in the morning', manus 'good', and Celt. *mati-'good' yielding Old Irish maith, Middle Welsh mad, and Middle Breton mat (Pokorny 1949: 693). Heiner Eichner rounded up this etymological nest by adducing Hitt. mehur 'time' and claimed that all the nominal forms cited above are derived from IE *meh2 'to be timely', the finite forms of which have all been lost (Eichner 1973, see especially p. 65).

Ibelieve that Hitt. mehur is not to be disconnected from Hitt. me(y)an- 'range (of the year), extent', therefore I accept the derivation of both nouns from IE *me 'to measure'.12 A different explanation of mehur is offered in Kloekhorst 2008: 568, but it is likewise incompatible with Eichner's proposal. Note also that mehur is not mentioned among the cognates of Celt. mati- 'good' in the latest Celtic etymological dictionary (Matasovic 2009: 259-60).

What is also interesting is that the verb trymman bears, not onlya general military meaning of strengthen', but a specific one to drawup in formation'. This occurs as early as Elene 35-6: For fyrda maest,fedan trymedon,/eoredcestum The greatest of armies advanced in hosts, fellinto formation', where an editor quotes getrymed fepa as a gloss oncuneus compact body of troops' from a late glossary.(11) But it alsooccurs as late as Maldon 17, Da paer Byrhtnod ongan beornas trymian TheByrhtnoth set about drawing up the men there', where, from horseback, heorders his men to form up and hold the position.(12) As for truma, its senseas a disciplined body of soldiers is proved by the Old English Orosius, whichtranslates cohors' by truma, and notes that the Romans were defeated byHannibal at Trasimene because Flaminius paet folc buton truman laedde ledthe army in randon order.'(13)

Pons-Sanz, Sara ORCID: -0002-8752-0652 2005. An etymological note on OE of lıfe forrædan. ANQ: a Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes and Reviews 18 (2) , pp. 7-9. 10.3200/ANQQ.18.2.7-9 041b061a72


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